Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela

Ministerio de la Defensa

Universidad Nacional Experimental Politécnica de la Fuerza Armada

Profesor: Karen M Hoyos L.

 

 

Lee el siguiente texto y subraya con una línea los gerundios y con dos la forma infinitivo.

 

The Driving Lesson

 

"I think he's finally beginning to like you," Gwen said to her boyfriend Darren. "He told me that he enjoys his weekly driving lessons with you."

"That's nice to hear," Darren replied. "He's disliked me since the first day we met. I don't know what I ever said or did. Maybe it's because I'm the wrong color? Or because I'm old enough to be his grandpa? But it's nice to hear that maybe we can eventually become friends. I'll keep my fingers crossed. I'm surprised he hasn't gotten upset when I yell at him for his driving mistakes."

"Oh, he doesn't like that at all. I wish you wouldn't yell at him during his driving lessons. It makes him upset and nervous."

"You know, I try not to. But I get so irritated sometimes. He does things like drifting into the next lane. He sees the car in front of him but doesn't see the red stop light above him. He forgets to check his blind spot when he changes lanes. We've been practicing for at least 20 hours now, and he's still making the same dangerous mistakes. Someday he might be driving you around, and one simple mistake could get both of you killed. I yell because he needs to wake up when he's behind the wheel. One second can be the difference between life and death."

"Yes, I know. But he's just a kid. Besides, there are other ways to wake someone up."

Taken from http://www.eslfast.com/eslread/ss/s314.htm

 

 

 

 

 

Reported Speech

 

La voz directa se utliza para relater o comentar lo que alguien dice en forma directa.

 

 "Women are saber because they're more cautious, said the inspectors"

"Las mujeres son más seguras porque son más cuidadosas", dijo el inspector.

 

La voz indirecta es utilizada para relatar o comentar lo que alguien dice. Notese que en este caso los verbos think y relieve van seguido del pronombre relativo that. Cabe destacar aquí que el pronombre relativo that a veces puede omitirse, especialmente en lenguaje más informal. Como regla muy general, úsalo cuando escribes y omítelo cuando hablas.

 

The inspector thinks that the sex of the driver was irrelevant.
(El inspector piensa que el sexo del conductor no tenía importancia)

He believes that the load you carry in your car makes a difference.
(El cree que la carga que llevas en tu auto hace la diferencia)

 

 

Cuando transformas comentarios directos a indirectos, hay que realizar varios ajustes al comentario que uno hace. Analiza estos cambios:

CAMBIOS EN LA PUNTUACION

Las comillas (" ") se utilizan únicamente para marcar el comienzo y el final de los comentarios directos:

DIRECT STATEMENT   ► inverted commas

"They are slower", she added.
("Son más lentos", agregó ella)

REPORTED STATEMENT   ► no inverted commas

This report shows that a risk of death at the wheel is high.
(Este informe demuestra que el riesgo de muerte al volante es elavado)

CAMBIOS EN LOS PRONOMBRES

El primer y segundo pronombre personal cambian a tercera persona:

DIRECT STATEMENT   ► personal pronoun "I"

"I drive a van and women are terrible", said Ian Lewis.
("Conduzco una camioneta y las mujeres son terribles", dijo Ian Lewis)

REPORTED STATEMENT   ► personal pronoun "he"

lan Lewis said that he drove a van and that women were terrible.
(Ian Lewis dijo que conducía una camioneta y que las mujeres eran terribles)

Después del verbo tell (comentar, contar, relatar), debes indicar a quien se comenta o relata. Por ejemplo:

Manuela told him she would be late.
(Manuela le dijo que llegaría tarde)

Después de los verbos explain (explicar), say (decir) y suggest (sugerir), no es necesario mencionar a quien se está hablando, pero si deseas mencionarlo deberá utilizar la preposición to (a) a continuación del verbo. Observa estos ejemplos:

The tour guide explained to the tourists that they needed a visa.
(El guía de turismo explicó a los turistas que ellos necesitaban una visa)

I said to my wife that I was surprised at the result.
(Le dije a mi esposa que yo estaba sorprendido por el resultado)

He suggested to Monica that the driver should be paid.
(El le sugirió a Mónica que había que pagar al conductor)

Observa ahora los cambios o ajustes que sufren las siguientes palabras puntero cuando comentas (Voz Indirecta) lo que otra persona ha dicho (Voz Directa):

DIRECT STATEMENT

 

REPORTED STATEMENT

now (ahora)
this morning
(esta mañana)
today
(hoy)
yesterday
(ayer)
tomorrow
(mañana)
next week
(la semana próxima)
last year
(el año pasado)
here
(aquí)
come
(venir)









at that time / then (en ese momento)
that morning
(esa mañana)
that day
(ese día)
the day before
(el día anterior)
the day after
(el día siguiente)
the following week
(la siguiente semana)
the year before
(el año anterior)
there
(allí)
go
(ir)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DIRECT SPEECH

 

REPORTED SPEECH

 

 

PRESENT SIMPLE 

 

PAST SIMPLE 

She said, "I  am  happy".
(Ella dijo, "Estoy feliz")
He said: "I  work  everyday".
(El dijo, "Trabajo a diario")

 

She said that  she  was  happy .
(Ella dijo que estaba feliz)
He said that he  worked  everyday.
(El dijo que trabajaba a diario)

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE 

 

PAST PROGRESSIVE 

You said, "They  are  reading".
(Usted dijo, "Ellos/as están leyendo")

 

You said that they  were  reading.
(Usted dijo que ellos/as estaban leyendo)

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE 

 

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE 

He said, "I  have bought  a car".
(El dijo, "He comprado un auto")

 

He said that he  had bought  a car.
(El dijo que había comprado un auto)

PAST SIMPLE 

 

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE 

He said, "I  bought  a piano".
(El dijo, "Compré un piano")

 

He said that he  had bought  a piano.
(El dijo que había comprado un piano)

PAST PROGRESSIVE 

 

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE 

He said, "I  was working ".
(El dijo, "Estuve/Estaba trabajando")

 

He said that he  had been working .
(El dijo que había estado trabajando)

FUTURE OF INTENTION (going to

 

PAST OF INTENTION (going to

She said, "I  am going  to win".
(Ella dijo, "Voy a ganar")

 

She said that she  was going  to win.
(Ella dijo que iba a ganar)

FUTURE SIMPLE 

 

CONDITIONAL SIMPLE 

They said, "We  will lose ".
(Ellos dijeron, "Perderemos")

 

They said that they  would lose .
(Ellos dijeron que perderían)

FUTURE PERFECT

 

PERFECT CONDITIONAL

He said, "I  will have bought  the house by June 2010".
(El dijo, "Habré comprado la casa 
para junio 2010")

 

He said that he  would have bought  the house by June 2010.
(El dijo que habría comprado la casa 
para junio 2010)

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE  

 

PROGRESSIVE CONDITIONAL 

She said, "I  will be having  tea with Helen at 5 pm".
(Ella dijo, "Estaré tomando el té con 
Helen a las 5 de la tarde")

 

She said that she  would be having  tea with Helen at 5 pm. 
(Ella dijo que estaría tomando el té con
Helen a las 5 de la tarde)

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

 

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

She said, "I  have been painting   
the walls".
(Ella dijo, "He estado pintando las paredes")

 

She said that she  had been painting  the walls.
(Ella dijo que había estado pintando las paredes)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ejercicios.

Completa las oraciones utilizando Reported Speech. Siempre debes cambiar el tiempo verbal, aún y cuando a veces no es necesario.

 

Ejemplo:

Example: Peter: "I clean the black shoes yesterday."

Peter told me that _________________________________

Answer: Peter told me that he cleaned the black shoes the day before.

 

1) Emily: "Our teacher will go to Leipzig tomorrow."
Emily said that
.

2) Helen: "I was writing a letter yesterday."
Helen told me that
.

3) Robert: "My father flew to Dallas last year."
Robert told me that
.

4) Lisa: "Tim went to the stadium an hour ago."
Lisa said that
.

5) Patricia: "My mother will celebrate her birthday next weekend."
Patricia said that
.

6) Michael: "I am going to read a book this week."
Michael said to me that
.

7) Jason and Victoria: "We will do our best in the exams tomorrow."
Jason and Victoria told me that
.

8) Andrew: "We didn't eat fish two days ago."
Andrew remarked that
.

9) Alice: "I spent all my pocket money on Monday."
Alice complained that
.

10) David: "John had already gone at six."
David said that
.